The Original Garden Fountains of History

The Original Garden Fountains of HistoryOriginal Garden Fountains History 9825467381338.jpg Villages and villages depended on practical water fountains to conduct water for cooking, washing, and cleaning up from nearby sources like ponds, channels, or creeks. A source of water higher in elevation than the fountain was necessary to pressurize the movement and send water squirting from the fountain's nozzle, a system without equal until the later half of the nineteenth century. The splendor and spectacle of fountains make them ideal for traditional monuments. If you saw the very first fountains, you probably would not recognize them as fountains. Created for drinking water and ceremonial purposes, the very first fountains were very simple carved stone basins. The oldest stone basins are suspected to be from around 2000 BC. The first civilizations that used fountains depended on gravity to force water through spigots. Situated near reservoirs or springs, the functional public water fountains furnished the local populace with fresh drinking water. Fountains with elaborate decoration started to show up in Rome in approx. 6 B.C., commonly gods and wildlife, made with stone or copper-base alloy. The City of Rome had an elaborate system of aqueducts that supplied the water for the many fountains that were situated throughout the community.

Original Water Delivery Solutions in The City Of Rome

Original Water Delivery Solutions in The City Of RomeOriginal Water Delivery Solutions City Rome 346375713601389664.jpg With the manufacturing of the 1st raised aqueduct in Rome, the Aqua Anio Vetus in 273 BC, folks who lived on the city’s hillsides no longer had to be dependent solely on naturally-occurring spring water for their demands. If residents residing at higher elevations did not have access to springs or the aqueduct, they’d have to rely on the remaining existing technologies of the time, cisterns that compiled rainwater from the sky and subterranean wells that received the water from under ground. Starting in the sixteenth century, a newer program was introduced, using Acqua Vergine’s subterranean portions to provide water to Pincian Hill. The aqueduct’s channel was made accessible by pozzi, or manholes, that were placed along its length when it was 1st designed. While these manholes were developed to make it simpler and easier to protect the aqueduct, it was also possible to use containers to extract water from the channel, which was employed by Cardinal Marcello Crescenzi from the time he invested in the property in 1543 to his death in 1552. It seems that, the rainwater cistern on his property wasn’t sufficient to satisfy his needs. To give himself with a more useful system to gather water, he had one of the manholes opened up, offering him access to the aqueduct below his residence.

Modern Garden Decor: Outdoor Fountains and their Roots

Modern Garden Decor: Outdoor Fountains and their Roots The incredible construction of a fountain allows it to provide clean water or shoot water high into air for dramatic effect and it can also serve as an excellent design feature to complement your home.Modern Garden Decor: Outdoor Fountains Roots 8976523817891.jpg

Originally, fountains only served a functional purpose. Water fountains were connected to a spring or aqueduct to supply drinkable water as well as bathing water for cities, townships and villages. Up until the 19th century, fountains had to be higher and closer to a water source, such as aqueducts and reservoirs, in order to benefit from gravity which fed the fountains. Fountains were not only used as a water source for drinking water, but also to adorn homes and celebrate the artist who created it. Roman fountains usually depicted images of animals or heroes made of bronze or stone masks. Muslims and Moorish landscaping designers of the Middle Ages included fountains to re-create smaller versions of the gardens of paradise. King Louis XIV of France wanted to illustrate his dominion over nature by including fountains in the Gardens of Versailles. The Popes of the 17th and 18th centuries were glorified with baroque style fountains made to mark the place of entry of Roman aqueducts.

Since indoor plumbing became the norm of the day for clean, drinking water, by the end of the 19th century urban fountains were no longer needed for this purpose and they became purely decorative. Amazing water effects and recycled water were made possible by switching the force of gravity with mechanical pumps.

Nowadays, fountains decorate public spaces and are used to honor individuals or events and fill recreational and entertainment needs.

The Father Of Roman Public Fountain Design

The Father Of Roman Public Fountain Design There are countless celebrated water fountains in Rome’s city center. Gian Lorenzo Bernini, one of the best sculptors and artists of the 17th century planned, created and constructed almost all of them. He was furthermore a urban designer, in addition to his abilities as a water feature engineer, and records of his life's work are noticeable throughout the avenues of Rome. Ultimately travelling to Rome to totally express their artwork, primarily in the form of community water features, Bernini’s father, a famed Florentine sculptor, mentored his young son. The juvenile Bernini was an exceptional employee and won praise and backing of significant painters as well as popes. He was initially recognized for his sculpture. An expert in historical Greek engineering, he used this knowledge as a base and melded it seamlessly with Roman marble, most notably in the Vatican. Although a variety of artists impacted his artistic endeavors, Michelangelo inspired him the most.

Garden Water Fountains And Public Policy

Garden Water Fountains Public Policy 41466435945.jpg Garden Water Fountains And Public Policy In February 2014, a tax on sugar-sweetened beverages was approved in Berkley, CA, making it the first city in the United States to bring in such a law. The tax is believed to decrease sugary drink intake and improve the consumption of healthier drinks, including water from fountains. Research was executed to find out the reputation of local drinking water fountains and whether individuals from other racial or economic backgrounds had less availability to them. The study utilized a GPS app to compile data on current water fountains in the city. The US Census Community Study database was used to compile information relating to race and economic status in these segments. The two data sets were compared to identify what class disparities, if any, there were in access to functioning water fountains. The neighboring demographics of each and every water fountain location was made note of, while also identifying whether race or income levels made a difference in the state of repair of each fountain. The fact that the fountains were functioning was not a guarantee that they were well-maintained, as quite a few were in need of maintenance and repair.

Hydro-Statics & Features: The Fundamentals

Hydro-Statics & Features: The FundamentalsHydro-Statics & Features: Fundamentals 0827558996170480582.jpg When in equilibrium, liquid applies force to its container or any other material it comes in contact with. There exist two types of force, hydrostatic energies and external forces. The pressure applied by the liquid against a level wall is equal at each and every point where it makes contact with the wall. All points on an object’s surface are affected by vertical pressure when the object is completely submerged in a liquid that’s in a state of equilibrium. This is also understood as buoyancy or the Archimedes’ principle. Generally speaking, hydrostatic pressure on a point of liquid is a product of the hydrostatic force applied on it. The containers that make up a city’s fountains, wells, and its water supply system are applications of these principles.
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